How to NDT Testing Method Dye penetrant

penetrant testing

Dye penetrant (liquid penetrant) is a defect inspection on the use of the principle of capillarity on liquids. Its working principle is to penetrate the open defects on the surface of the object. Non Destructive Testing using penetrant fluids can be used in ferrous and non ferrous objects, conductors and non-conductors, magnetic and non-magnetic, and all alloy and plastic. Weakness nondestructive testing with this method is the detection of defects can only be done on the surface of the specimen.

Common procedures performed on this test include:

a. Cleaning early (pre-cleaning)

The surface of the test material must be cleaned in advance of dirt that will prevent the entry of liquid penetrating into the defect. Surfaces must be free of paint, dirt, crust, varnishes, oils, fillings, lubricants, oxide, wax, rust, machining fluids, and the rest of the previous penetrant inspection.

A good cleaning procedure will remove all contaminants from the test object and not leave remnants that can interfere with the inspection process. The means used to pre-dry, among others:

  • Detergents (detergent)
  • Steam grease remover (vapor degreasing)
  • Steam cleaners (steam cleaning)
  • Substances cleaning solvent (dry solvent)
  • Cleaning with ultrasonic (ultrasonic cleaning)
  • In the etching (etching)

b. The use of liquid penetrant

Once the surface has been cleaned and dried thoroughly, penetrant materials used by spraying, rubbing, or dipping the specimen into a tub of penetrant.

After use penetrant, it takes some time for the liquid penetrant really seep into the defect. The time it takes liquid penetrant that can seep into the so-called penetrant flaw time / penetrant dwell time. The time needed usually ranges between 5-60 minutes.

c. Eliminating residual penetrant

Excess residual penetrant on the surface of the specimen, must be removed as small as possible. Cleaning is done in different ways depending on the type of penetrant used.

Types use liquid penetrant can be categorized based on the type of cleaner is used, which can be cleaned with a solvent and which can be cleaned with water. Penetrant cleaner types including Water-washable, Solvent-removable, post-emulsifiable lipophilic and hydrophilic post-emulsifiable.

d. Drying

After the process of removing the liquid penetrant done, the drying process should be carried out with hot air is blown with a blower where the temperature should not exceed 225ยบ F.

e. The use of substances developers (developers)

To draw the liquid penetrant testing that surfaced used liquid developers. Type of developers there are two types of liquid and dry type. Developer liquid type made of powder dissolved in water and volatile solvent. Developer substances must be white in order to provide color contrast to liquid penetrant, so defects will be obvious.

Dry type developer substances commonly used for liquid penetrant fluorescent types while the liquid developer used in liquid penetrant contrasting color. The use of liquid developer is shown in the figure below:

f. Interpretation of disability

Interpretation of defects that arise should be done as soon as possible after the visible indications of the developer substance. To get the good interpretation on liquid penetrant inspection method must be done on the type of fluorescent dark room with the aid of ultraviolet light (black light).

Cleaners Contain Chemicals Side Effects & How to Avoid It


In general, all cleaning products containing soap and detergents. Soaps are chemicals made from natural materials such as oil and grease, while the detergent is a chemical compound called alkylbenzene sulfonate which is mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Of the cleaning materials there must be a side effect that can harm the environment. For that you need to know what are the side effects of cleaners that contain chemicals:

  • Damaging soil functions. This is because the chemical constituents in certain cleaning agents difficult broken down by microorganisms in the soil.
  • Disposal of waste waters detergents and household sewers that flowed in the soil can cause the organism / dead animals in the waters.
  • Detrimental to human health. Eg floor cleaners that contain active ingredients that are disinfectant benzalkonium chloride, caustic, corrosive and can cause irritation to the skin and if the eyes can cause eye irritation.

There are many ways to avoid or prevent the negative effects on the environment cleaner language and the health of one of them is:

  • Reduce the use of detergents to replace it with soap, because soap is smaller than the negative effects of detergents. or using cleaning products that don’t contain chemicals such as eco friendly cleaning products.
  • Choosing detergent waste is broken down by microorganisms (biodegradable) and its low levels of ABS, for example: dodesil detergents containing sodium sulfate
  • Using natural cleaning agents such as lime, rice husks, coconut etc. astringent.
  • Cleaning store in a safe place and keep out of reach of children.

From the article above we can take the point that we must always be careful in choosing cleaning materials so that the beauty and health of the environment is always awake. That article Side Effects Cleansing & How to Avoid it, look forward to the upcoming new posts.

Here Seven Reasons Difficult Property Sold

reasons difficult to sell the property

Selling property can be said easy bother. Sometimes very difficult, but many who could easily do it.

Currently we can sell the property easily, other times it could be even very difficult. Instead of circling and actually confused, when up ahead of Eid is our property has not yet sold, a list of the following reasons may be appropriate scrutiny to be avoided.

1. The price is too high

Before determining the selling price of the property, it helps us do a little research to determine the minimum local market prices for similar properties. Remember that the consumer may have the product comparison.

2. Poor promotion or sale is not on target

Promotion to sell the property either primary or secondary, as in any other business would need. Many media could with banners, online ads, flyers, or newspaper ads. Perform promotional and adjust to the target market of our property.

3. Physical unfavorable building

Seeing is believing. Poor physical building can reduce the interest of people to buy. Simply cleaning or painting the walls of the building can boost the look of the building with relatively low cost.

4. Avoid the middleman

One of the things that could make the property easier to sell is the dissemination of related information. Broker or intermediary for the sale of property owned by the network will greatly assist us in this regard. If worried about the hassles, we can choose Property Agent which has been trusted. Willingness to cooperate and share sales may be easier for us.

5. Do not make time to serve the prospective buyer

If you seriously want to sell the property, especially in a relatively quick time, take the time to serve the prospective buyer. Hold open house or accompany prospective buyers who will visit the location are the consequences.

6. Do not cooperative with prospective buyers

The property is a product with great value. To take a decision, prospective buyers generally need very detailed information is also time to weigh. Be cooperative will help prospective buyers will also give a positive impression which may speed up the sale.

7. Payment Scheme difficult

Many choice of payment schemes in property transactions. Transaction scheme needs to accommodate both sellers and buyers desire. Flexibility in this case could determine the outcome of a series of sales stages.

How to Remove Stains on Floor


Cleaning stains on the floor is not as difficult as you think. Although relatively rare, some of the following ways you can do to get rid of some stubborn stains are present on your floor.

  • Give vinegar on your floor. Rubbing vinegar onto the floor so the stain will disappear from the ceramic.
  • Use starfruit, acidic substances will help to fade even stubborn stains to be easily cleaned. Starfruit rubbing on the floor by using an old toothbrush.
  • In addition you can also use a stain cleaning the floor, do not forget to use the gloves in advance so that the chemicals in the cleaning solution is not exposed to floor of your hand.

Success Strategies To Keep Your Gas Plant Growing

Professional Quality Inspections

If you run a gas plant and want to ensure that it continues to grow this year, it’s important that you develop a sound, strategic plan to make it happen. If you’ve run out of ideas, don’t worry. These business-enhancing techniques will help:

1. Invest In Inspections.

As most if not all gas plant owners know, inspections are infinitely important. This is the case for several reasons, including the fact that inspections preclude you from using outdated or unsafe equipment that could cause injuries. When you start the search for the ideal API inspection provider, consider the professionals of ChemRef Services Inc. The company employs a team of savvy, sophisticated certified inspectors who will work with diligence and dedication to ensure that your gas company is in excellent condition.

2. Optimize Your Meetings.

In addition to investing in inspections, be sure that you’re taking the time to enhance your gas company by optimizing your meetings. Your meetings are the time during which you disseminate important updates and information regarding operations, procedures, successes, losses, etc. To ensure that your meetings are optimized, consider the power of using professional services that involve putting together stellar PowerPoint Presentations on your behalf. Also be sure that you’re giving your employees questionnaires, surveys, etc. These documents can be used to help you gauge whether they’re actively listening during meetings and whether your communication modality is acceptable and appropriate in light of your audience.

3. Focus On Wellness Optimization.

If you’re serious about ensuring that your gas company is as productive, positive, and powerful as possible, it’s important to focus on wellness optimization. When you are mentally and physically fit, your level of job performance increases significantly. With that thought in mind, be sure that you’re eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables while also taking time to get in a “daily dose” of exercise.


If you’re a gas company owner who is passionate about operating in excellence and exceptionalism, note that there’s a systematic way of ensuring that your business attains and maintains this exemplary level of operation. To get started, be sure to invest in inspections, optimize your meetings, and focus on maximizing your personal wellness. Good luck!

How to Clean Moss on Roof Home

Painting and Power Washing

If your roof is exposed to sunlight for a limited intensity because of the shade trees, the roof will tend to be more humid than the roof that is exposed to sunlight continuously. Roof humidity will be higher in the presence of water droplets on the roof, either from dew or from a tree on it.

This condition will trigger the growth of moss on the roof. Here are some ways to clean moss from roofs.


Perhaps, the simplest method and the least expensive to clean moss from the roof is by scrubbing or rubbing moss on the roof and point it down so that the moss can flake off and fell to the bottom. You do this by standing on the stairs, and then by using a brush, slowly – land scrub the moss under the direction of the arrangement of tiles on the roof. Make sure the moss really – really lifted from the roof down to its roots.

Power Washing

Consider using a power washing or certain pressurized water to clean the roof of moss. This can be done for vulnerable roof cracking, which could not withstand the heavy burden of our body. Use washing power with power between 1200 and 2000 psi, or (pounds per square inch). Place the hose nozzle near the top of the roof and move it to decline following the pattern tile. Splash water coming out of the nozzle will make the moss peeled off. If you do not have Power Washing Equipment, or you can use the services of St. Louis Painting and Power Washing, They are experts in performing repairs and home maintenance.

Eliminate moss with a roof made of hydrogen peroxide cleaners

Mix hydrogen peroxide-based cleaners roof with warm water and let it to be active for 15-20 minutes, then stir the ingredients. Move the condensation at the pump sprayer, be careful and do not let anyone pour hydrogen peroxide which is still lumpy and not mixed which can clog the nozzles on the spray. Use this solution to be sprayed into the moss on the roof, and then use a brush to scrub the part that has been treated with a solution in a circular motion and rinse with clean water.